Bokeh is the term used in photography when referring to the aesthetic quality of the blur produced from a image with shallow depth of field. Factors that can determine the results of bokeh are things like lens aberrations and shape of lens aperture.

Hannah Hylen

Bokeh is one of my favourite techniques to recreate and working with moving image, gives me the chance to explore this techniques further and how my knowledge of bokeh will change. As my project is based on visual elements over sound now, I have decided I will experiment with bokeh, and see how successful it will be.

Will Montague

Ting Hay


Bibliography + Reading

Aitken, D. (2006) Broken Screen, Expanding the Image, Breaking the Narrative, 26 Conversations with Doug Aitken . Edited by N. Daniel. New York, NY: D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc. .
Buchan, S. and Surman, D. (2007) Animated ‘Worlds’. Edited by S. Buchan. Eastleigh: Libbey, John & Company.
Goodridge, M. and Grierson, T. (2012) FilmCraft: Cinematography. United Kingdom: Ilex.
Leighton, T. and Esche, C. (2008) Art and the Moving Images: A Critical Reader. United Kingdom: Tate Gallery Pubn.
Maltby, R. (2003) Hollywood Cinema 2nd. 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Parkinson, D. (1995) History of film. New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.
Watkinson, J. (1988) The art of digital audio. London: Elsevier Science & Technology Books.
Anonymous (2010) “Gregory Crewdson (b. 1962) Untitled (Twilight Series)”, School Arts, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 24.


This is my final piece, titled EXISTENTIAL, and is a narrative about a journey, taken  physically but also mentally. The title EXISTENTIAL stems from the idea of one human making a change and creating something for themselves. Everyone takes a journey and has a story to tell, and I wanted to channel the theme of a narrative, with a beginning, middle and end and apply this idea of art and existence to it, and I think it has worked successfully.

I believe have kept my theme running throughout my developmental work with the filters and letterbox cropped frame, and I think that’s how each piece links in with the other. However, I decided to edit this video black and white, as I felt the other pieces were too happy and had not depth or pain to them, no story. I wanted to include an element of sadness and I feel I have chosen and appropriate song choice to accompany my footage.

With the initial idea of making sound a major part in this project, I am glad it has taken a back seat. The theme of VISION having lots of visual elements, light and moving imagery I’m glad I chose to focus on sight, and EXISTENTIAL epitomises that. I have tried to make my work visually excelling as this project required LO2. Demonstrate knowledge of the technical skills relevant to the project and visual effect worked the best. Also I found the timelapse worked very well in this video. I had a lot of footage to sift through, yet I still wanted a lot of elements, but they would not all fit into a 4 minute window, so I had to speed some footage up, and I believe it’s worked very well.

Song: Emeli Sandé – Clown (Instrumental)

Gregory Crewdson’s Photography Capturing a Movie Frame

Talking to the Reserve Channel, Gregory Crewdson talks about the underlying factor, that an image cannot simply be aesthetically pleasing, it also needs can incorporate emotion and narrative. Crewdson’s level of attention to detail and sophistication, makes his work truly stand out in the history of photography, having sometimes 60 people working on a single shoot with him, to create cinematic pieces.

Crewdson always admits his projects start small, and grow organically into something much bigger. From his early career, shooting uncanny photographs, to shooting homemade tableaux, to his series Hover where he used aerial cranes to shoot from an unfamiliar angle; Twilight began to combine all of these elements together throughout his career. I think Crewdson shows great majesty in his evolution of his work, as I feel the Twilight series was amazing work, as the attention to detail and the grand nature of scale, suggests that he planted a seed and it’s just grew and developed, and I love that idea and seeing the final image, and the idea that his narrative is the evolution of his work.

Gregory Crewdson

Gregory Crewdson is an American photographer, born in 1962 in Brooklyn, New York City. He specialises in taking shots of elaborately staged neighbourhood scenes, as if they were a tableau of the first act of film. He combines light and extras on set, often to get his photographs as unique and thought provoking as possible. Crewdson has a very different style to many other photographers. The photos usually take place in small town America, showing the eerie, weird and wacky going’s on in people’s houses, gardens and sometimes even the whole street, to give an almost cinematic effect. One of Crewdson’s most famous projects was his ‘Twilight’ book by Ricky Moody published in 2002, which comprised of 40 original photographs set the twilight zone, between the certainty of day and fear of the dark.

Twilight Series 2003

I have always been fascinated by the poetic condition of twilight. By its transformative quality. Its power of turning the ordinary into something magical and otherworldly. My wish is for the narrative in the pictures to work within that circumstance. It is that sense of in-between-ness that interests me. – Gregory Crewdson

I think Crewdson has a real passion for the unknown, and the in-between times of day and night that conjure up many crazy ideas of what may happen when no one’s looking. When I look at his photographs, they make me wonder about what was going on at those times for the scene to happen like that? I often think of how does he achieve such a cinematic perspective of the scene that he is creating?

Twilight Series 2003

With Crewdson, it is all about the lighting and how he uses the light to his advantage to create such an extraordinary array of photos that fit together really well. With the idea of twilight he uses the element of this time in the day and the natural light to create interesting scenes that have an eerie glow to them. One of the reasons Crewdson like to work in these times of the day is because the lighting at these times are usually softer, and have a warmer hue to them. When the sun is near or below the horizon, it takes a longer time for the sunlight to travel through the atmosphere, therefore reducing he light intensity of the harsh and often colour-washing, direct light.

Overall, the way that Gregory Crewdson has managed to channel other artist’s perspective to create his own scenes in such a cinematic perspective, with his crazy and outlandish taste, is quite unique and makes me wonder on how I could achieve something similar to his work with copying and transcription. Also I like his inclusion in his photographs that threat is everywhere, and danger is just a short walk down the garden path.

Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima

Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a momentous photograph taken on 23rd February 1945, by Joe Rosenthal, an American Photographer from Washington D.C. The photograph portrays five United States Marines and a Navy corpsman raising an American flag on top of Mount Suribachi, on the little Japanese island of Iwo Jima, during the ‘Battle of Iwo Jima’ in World War II. The US occupied Iwo Jima until 1968 when it was returned to Japan.

The photograph was exceedingly popular, being reprinted in thousands of publications. Later, it became the only photograph to win the Pulitzer Prize, an award for achievements in journalism, literature and musical composition, for Photography in the same year as its publication, and came to be considered in the United States as one of the most symbolic and recognisable images of the war, and possibly the most reproduced photograph of all time, recreated on millions of posters, both pro- and anti-war. The photograph even appeared on the commemorative US Dollar in 1945.

 What few people know is that this inspiring moment was actually a second version of the original event.

 I swung my camera around and held it until I could guess that this was the peak of the action, and shot. I couldn’t positively say I had the picture. It’s something like shooting a football play; you don’t brag until it’s developed. – Joe Rosenthal

 Rosenthal admitted that when he took a shot of six men raising the Stars and Stripes on Mount Suribachi, he had no idea that he had captured something extraordinary. He was setting up for a different shot when he spotted the group of men planting the flag and quickly took a snap without even looking through the viewfinder. Unsure if his photo would come out clearly, he assembled some marines to reproduce the original image. This photo would become iconic overnight and go on to win the Pulitzer Prize. When the six men in the second image returned home, they were classed as War Heroes and toured America, explaining life of the front-line.

 Many copies and parodies have been done of the iconic image, the most of any other image of its kind, and hold the record for the most reproduced photograph in history. Most of them can be seen on this website: Some other famous artists and photographers have even copied and made their own Iwo Jima style image.

British toy photographer Mike Stimpson, creating the scene out of Lego (above), and American instillation artist Edward Kienholz, making a ‘Portable War Memorial’ (below)  in 1968, which encourages you to go and sit down on the piece.

 Overall, I feel that the narrative in Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is the history and emotion behind it. The terrible wars that were breaking out, the lives lost and the stories left behind were incomprehensible, and to be alive and living in such times must have been extraordinary and painful. This one still image has been able to portray such deep emotion into society especially in the US and Japan and encourages people to remember what happened in the past actually happened, no matter how traumatising it may seem.